Aquarium Lighting For Reef Tanks

Water quality gives the tank stability as well as providing the corals with the essential elements. Aquarium lighting provides the corals with energy which they then use to grow. Water movement allows nutrients to be delivered to the corals for them to feed upon, as well as washing away waste. Water movement is also essential when natural filtration is used in the reef tank.

Inside all corals are millions upon millions of what is called symbiotic algae. The only exceptions are those corals which are classified as non-photosynthetic. These obtain their energy from feeding rather than from light itself. Photosynthetic corals obtain their primary source of energy from light and then also actively feed to obtain more energy. The symbiotic algae within the corals obtain energy from the light and then pass this energy on to the coral itself – a match made in heaven!

Different corals have different lighting requirements. For example, short polyp stony corals require much more intense lighting than soft corals do.

When choosing aquarium lighting for reef tanks you need to check two things in your reef tank. The first is the corals themselves, so that you can ascertain their requirements, and the other is the depth of the aquarium itself. Checking the depth is important as light can only penetrate so far into water before the colour is removed. It is amazing how quickly water can remove colour from light.

The depth of your aquarium as well as the corals you keep will determine which type of lighting you require. For example, if you keep soft corals then you could possibly just use fluorescent tubes. However, if you keep short polyp stony corals then metal halide lighting will be required. The depth needs to be checked because if you have a deep aquarium then the colour might not penetrate to the bottom of the aquarium. Water has the ability to be able to strip out colour at an amazing rate, therefore if you have a deep aquarium you will need lighting of enough power to be able to push the light to the bottom of the aquarium.

Another component of aquarium lighting for reef tanks which needs to be considered is that of Kelvin. Kelvin is the colour output and the higher the rating in the Kelvin scale the bluer the light will be. At the other end of the scale the lower the rating the more yellow/red it will be. Normally in a reef aquarium a Kelvin rating of 10,000K to 13,000K is utilised. This is a white/blue colour which replicates life on the reef at a depth of about 30m.

When placing corals into your reef aquarium you will need to first check what their lighting requirements are and then place them at the bottom of the reef tank and slowly move them up over time until they are in their final position.

Keeping Rabbits As Pets

Another good thing about rabbits is their appearance. They are very adorable and cute as pets. This makes them very likeable too. Rabbits also require low maintenance once you take them home. They feed on dried foods, vegetables and grass hay which is very easy to buy and readily available. They are also very immune to many different diseases and require little or no vaccinations.

Rabbits have a long life span compared with other animals of similar size. Some of them could live for as long as 10 years when they are properly taken care of. They also don’t require a lot of attention as they are very independent and can do a lot of things on their own just like cats. You can easily allow them out of their cages to run around and exercise their bodies and if you have more than one, you organize races for them which are fun to watch.

If you are looking for a pet to play with both indoors and outdoors then rabbits are just perfect. They are very playful and show a lot of affection towards their owners. They like to lick you just like dogs and make just as nice a pet. Rabbits also have a lot of personality even though they are very small. They are intelligent and can be litter box trained to help keep their cages clean.

In spite of all the advantages of having pet rabbits, there are also some disadvantages that you should be aware of. First of all rabbits can be stubborn when you are first trying to train them. It can be very time consuming when teaching them to use the litter box for the first time and you should be really patient during that time. You will also have to clean the litter box regularly and disinfect it to prevent odors and infections. Cages should also be cleaned and disinfected regularly to prevent bad odors in your house.

Rabbits tend to chew anything they come into contact with which can lead to damage of very important things. You should make sure your home is rabbit-proofed if you plan to keep rabbits as pets and let them run loose in your home. During unfavorable weather conditions such as extremely low temperatures, rabbits may have to be given special attention to prevent diseases especially if they live outdoors. You may want to put them indoors during this time or fix some type of heater for their cages.

Getting vaccinations or finding medical experts for rabbits can be quite difficult in some locations compared with more popular pets such as dogs and cats. For instance you might want to get your pet rabbit’s teeth trimmed to prevent uncontrolled chewing but finding a medical expert for the procedure could be difficult.

All in all rabbits do make great pets and the pros out weigh the cons by a large margin. Probably the biggest problem is trying to choose what kind of rabbit to get as a pet because there so many different varieties. They come in many sizes, looks, colors, etc. but choosing the best one is part of the fun.

DIY Aquarium Backgrounds

When you start out in this hobby thinking about a background is probably the last thing on your mind. You are learning that much about this hobby that a background is well down the list. Actually the background should be thought about as part of the planning stage.

You may even end up purchasing a salt water aquarium package where a background is not included.

The planning stage is an exceptionally important part when it comes to setting up a salt water aquarium, however it is also unfortunately one of the things which is not performed.

When you consider starting your aquarium you need to research as much as you can (when you finish researching then research a little bit more!) and then you can start planning. When you start planning you do this based upon the animal you wish to keep and not the equipment you need. You purchase the equipment which is necessary for the animals which you hope to keep not just know but also in the future.

The reason I have talked about planning is that the background is part of this. For example you may want to incorporate overflows into the rear of the tank. Your chosen background needs to accommodate this.

It is also easier to apply a background before the aquarium is installed and full of water.

There are various DIY aquarium backgrounds that you can use which are listed below:

  • Incorporate a painted wooden background onto the rear of the stand.
  • Paint the rear glass of the aquarium.
  • Paint a thin wooden background and attach it to the rear of the aquarium using silicone.
  • Attach a curtain or some other type of fabric across the rear of the aquarium.
  • Purchase reef rock, cut them in half and stick to the inside rear of the aquarium.
  • Make a cave/reef structure out of salt water rated concrete/resin or foam.

The most utilised option out of the above DIY aquarium backgrounds is where the rear glass of the aquarium is painted.

The next thing to think about is what colour do you use?

This is up to you really. It is personal preference, however the most common used colours and blue and black. The trick is to attempt to make it so that the background is not obvious and seamlessly integrates into the aquarium. The rear of the aquarium will probably get covered in corraline etc within time.

If you choose to paint the glass then ensure that you clean the glass first with some glass cleaner and ensure that all fingerprints and oil based marks are removed. If you not 100% sure that it is clean do it again to make sure. You can now either spray or hand paint the glass. Do so in several thin coats ensuring that the previous coat is dry before applying the next.

When all the coats are applied wait until it is completely dry before touching it or moving the tank. The paint does not attach that well to glass and can easily peel.

Whichever of the DIY aquarium backgrounds you choose to use attempt to plan for it prior to starting your aquarium. It is much easier to paint the aquarium when it is empty and not in it’s final position.

Eliminating Cat Odor Problems

Untrained kittens or untrained rescue cats aren’t the only cause of feline odor problems. Cats, both male and female, neutered or whole, are capable of scent-marking their territory. And de-clawed cats are more likely to scent mark than fully armed cats.

Urine and scent spray both leave an undesirable odor for cat owners to deal with. What’s worse, the cats tend to be creative when they mark their territory. Places to find scent spray include walls, doors, door frames, window frames, outside door thresholds, entrance ways, above and behind kitchen cabinets, behind baseboards and on door trim. The unpainted bottoms of wood doors are also a popular place for scent spray to accumulate.

Despite the wide range of possible problem areas, eliminating these urine and scent spray odors is relatively easy. Just don’t paint over the areas, and do your best to locate all of the offending areas.

One effective way to locate these areas is with a black light. The black light will cause the phosphor salts in the scent spray to light up as a pale, yellowish-green mark that looks like the cat applied it with a squirt gun. Stick a thumb tack about two inches above every mark you find to help you keep track of all the locations.

Mix up a 16 ounce trigger spray bottle of OdorXit Concentrate using 1 ounce of Concentrate and 15 ounces of water. Now spray the marked areas with two to four pumps of the product and let it dry naturally. These scent marks often take two to five applications over as many days to remove all the odor.

OdorXit Concentrate neutralizes the odor-causing residue so that the urine residue no longer produces the odors. This Concentrate must come in direct contact with all the cat urine residue to eliminate all of the odor. Odors caused by cat urine in hardwood flooring, sub-flooring, concrete, dirt, gravel, fabric, clothing, upholstery and most other surfaces are effectively and permanently removed.

Another approach to eliminating the odors is through using OdorXit Magic. This product uses a “gas absorbing” technology to attract, trap and eliminate cat urine odors from the air. When sprayed on flooring, carpeting, upholstery, and most other surfaces and materials, OdorXit Magic absorbs the gasses (odors) coming from the cat urine. This process continues for 2 to 12 weeks depending on the amount of odor being produced and the amount of sun shining on the area.

Some Tips Essential Betta Tank Setup

  • Have a Cover for the Tank – Another important setup tip for your tank is that you have a cover for your tank as well. If you do not have a cover, or you fail to put the cover on, your fish may jump out of the tank and either hurt himself or die.
  • Treat the Water – It can actually be dangerous to use water straight from the tap for your betta fish; however, using bottled or purified water is not the answer either. The best thing to do is to treat the water from your tap with a product like Amquel or Stress Coat to help get rid of the chlorine in the water. After treating the water it probably should set for almost a week to make sure that all the chemicals have evaporated from the water. Chlorine can actually kill your betta, so be sure that you treat the water first.
  • Choose the Right Substrate – It is important that you choose the right substrate for in your tank as well. More than likely you will want some plants in your tank so you want a substrate that is great for both the plants and your fish. While the colored substrate may look great, it is probably a bad idea since the paint can flake off causing problems. Choose a natural color of substrate, and one that will be conducive to both plants and your betta fish. Many times sand is actually a very cheap and excellent choice.
  • Choose Appropriate Plants – Plants are a great idea for your fish tank since they can help keep the water cleaner and also provide the tank with more oxygen, but it is important that you choose the right plants for your betta. One of the best plants to use in a betta tank is the Amazon Sword plant; however, you may need to keep this plant trimmed if it starts to take over the tank.
  • Tank Temperature – Having your tank at the right temperature is very important for your betta fish as well. Usually the best temperature for your betta fish tank is about 80 F. Any colder than this can be hard on your fish, and too warm can be a problem as well.
  • Food for Your Betta – It is important that you also have the right food available for your betta as well. Now it is possible to get betta fish food tablets to feed your fish, but you may want to have some live food to give them as well. It is very important that you do not overfeed your betta fish or it can cause problems in the water or result in your betta overeating, which is not healthy. Try to make sure that your betta gets a well rounded diet to keep him healthy.
  • Provide Light – It is also important that you can provide your betta fish with enough light. Both your betta fish and the healthy bacteria will need plenty of light, so you may want to install a light in the tank if you feel they may need more light. Make sure that they get at least eight hours of good light each day. It is also important that you turn out the light at night so your fish can get some sleep as well.
  • Tank Placement – If you do not have a light for your aquarium, make sure you place the tank where it will get plenty of light. You also need to make sure that you have an aquarium stand that will take the weight of a full tank as well.

Adopting A Dog

Adopting a dog is a big decision. Dogs require lots of time, money, and commitment, as they can live from 9 to 15 years, depending on the breed. Owning a dog can be very rewarding, but you must think it through before adopting one.

Things to consider when looking at puppies for adoption

Adopting a dog or puppy from an animal shelter shows that you’re a responsible and caring person. But first take a moment to think over these important questions:

Why do you want a dog?

… not many people ask themselves this question. Don’t forget that your new dog may be with you for up to 15 years.

Do you have time for a dog?

… you can’t ignore your dog just because you’re tired or busy. You have to provide food, water, exercise, care, and companionship every day of every year. You can’t just “take a day off” if you feel like it. A lot of the dogs in the shelter or rescue are there because their owners didn’t realize how much time it took to care for them.

Can you afford a dog?

… the costs of dog ownership can be quite high. Licenses, training classes, spaying and neutering, veterinary care, grooming, toys, food,and other expenses add up quickly.

Are you prepared to deal with special problems that a dog can cause?
… flea infestations, scratched-up furniture, and unexpected medical emergencies are all unfortunate aspects of dog ownership.

Can you have a pet where you live?

… if you rent you may not be allowed to have a puppy or a dog. Find out before you consider looking at puppy’s for adoption.

Do you have young children?

… if you have kids under six years old, you might consider waiting a few years before you adopt a dog. Dog ownership requires children who are mature enough to be responsible.

How much room do you have at home?

… the size of the dog is not the only thing to think about here. Some small dogs, such as terriers are very active, and require a great deal of exercise to slow them down, and they often bark at any noise. On the other hand, quite a few big dogs are laid back and just couch potatoes. Before you adopt a dog, do your research. That way, you can be sure you choose a dog who will fit into your particular lifestyle and your living arrangements.

What will you do when you go on vacation?

… you’ll either have to rely on your friends and neighbors or have the money to pay for a boarding kennel or pet-sitting service.

Are you prepared to keep and care for the pet for his or her entire lifetime?
… when you adopt a puppy dog, you are making a commitment to care for the animal for his or her lifetime.

Well, that was a long list of questions, however if you take a look through an animal shelter, they will help you understand why you need to answer each of them honestly.

Most of the dog shelter’s and dog rescue’s homeless animals are puppies and dogs that are the result of irresponsible breedings, or owners who simply could not manage their pet.

Cute Cat Names

These lines come from the hilarious, but now sold out Garfield Book of Cat Names by Jim Davis. The famous cartoon cat is a self declared enemy of silly names. In the book he gives advice on how to give your kitten a name to be proud of.

Popular tom cat names are Max, Sam, Charlie, Buddy, Toby, Rocky, Buster, Casey.

Popular cat names for females are Lady, Kitty, Chelsea, Molly, Maggie, Sadie, Abby, Dakota, Sasha.

There are also names that are just right for males and females, like Shadow or Smokey.

Although some people think cats ignore them when called, cats do listen – and very well. If you say its name often and clear it will soon recognize it. And if you consequently call your kitten’s name, it will associate the sound with food, play and other pleasant activities.

If your kitten comes from a planned mating between pedigree animals, you need to register the name. There are strict rules for this. Professional cat breeders are happy to tell you more.

Still, finding the right and preferably cute name is not easy.

Your family members will want to agree with it, and of course it should not sound silly once your cute little kitten becomes an adult cat.

Colors often give inspiration, or the coat. During the Clinton administration almost every American knew Socks, the First Cat of the United States, and it’s not difficult to understand why Clinton’s cat got this name.

A cat’s personality may also give a hint for a good name. This works best with older cats that you took from a shelter, because they usually have a clearly developed personality.